(1) Unless a party must be summoned as provided in subrule (B), a party shall be given notice of a juvenile proceeding in any manner authorized by the rules in this subchapter.
(2) MCR 2.004 applies in juvenile proceedings involving incarcerated parties.
(1) In General. A summons may be issued and served on a party before any juvenile proceeding.
(2) When Required. Except as otherwise provided in these rules, the court shall direct the service of a summons in the following circumstances:
(a) In a delinquency proceeding, a summons must be served on the parent or parents, guardian, or legal custodian having physical custody of the juvenile, directing them to appear with the juvenile for trial. The juvenile must also be served with a summons to appear for trial. A parent without physical custody must be notified by service as provided in subrule (D), unless the whereabouts of the parent remain unknown after a diligent inquiry.
(b) In a child protective proceeding, a summons must be served on any respondent and any nonrespondent parent. A summons may be served on a person having physical custody of the child directing such person to appear with the child for hearing. A guardian or legal custodian who is not a respondent must be served with notice of hearing in the manner provided by subrule (D).
(c) In a personal protection order enforcement proceeding involving a minor respondent, a summons must be served on the minor. A summons must also be served on the parent or parents, guardian, or legal custodian, unless their whereabouts remain unknown after a diligent inquiry.
(3) Content. The summons must direct the person to whom it is addressed to appear at a time and place specified by the court and must:
(a) identify the nature of hearing;
(b) explain the right to an attorney and the right to trial by judge or jury, including, where appropriate, that there is no right to a jury at a termination hearing;
(c) if the summons is for a child protective proceeding, include a notice that the hearings could result in termination of parental rights; and
(d) have a copy of the petition attached.
(4) Manner of Serving Summons.
(a) Except as provided in subrule (B)(4)(b), a summons required under subrule (B)(2) must be served by delivering the summons to the party personally.
(b) If the court finds, on the basis of testimony or a motion and affidavit, that personal service of the summons is impracticable or cannot be achieved, the court may by ex parte order direct that it be served in any manner reasonably calculated to give notice of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard, including publication.
(c) If personal service of a summons is not required, the court may direct that it be served in a manner reasonably calculated to provide notice.
(5) Time of Service.
(a) A summons shall be personally served at least:
(i) 14 days before hearing on a petition that seeks to terminate parental rights or a permanency planning hearing,
(ii) 7 days before trial or a child protective dispositional review hearing, or
(iii) 3 days before any other hearing.
(b) If the summons is served by registered mail, it must be sent at least 7 days earlier than subrule (a) requires for personal service of a summons if the party to be served resides in Michigan, or 14 days earlier than required by subrule (a) if the party to be served resides outside Michigan.
(c) If service is by publication, the published notice must appear in a newspaper in the county where the party resides, if known, and, if not, in the county where the action is pending. The published notice need not include the petition itself. The notice must be published at least once 21 days before a hearing specified in subrule (a)(i), 14 days before trial or a hearing specified in subrule (a)(ii), or 7 days before any other hearing.
(C) Notice of Proceeding Concerning Indian Child. If the court knows or has reason to know an Indian child is the subject of a protective proceeding or is charged with a status offense in violation of MCL 712A.2(a)(2)-(4) or (d) and an Indian tribe does not have exclusive jurisdiction as defined in MCR 3.002(6):
(1) in addition to any other service requirements, the petitioner shall notify the parent or Indian custodian and the Indian child’s tribe by registered mail with return receipt requested of the pending proceedings on a petition filed under MCR 3.931 or MCR 3.961 and of their right of intervention on a form approved by the State Court Administrative Office. If the identity or location of the parent or Indian custodian, or of the tribe, cannot be determined, notice shall be given to the Secretary of the Interior by registered mail with return receipt requested. Subsequent notices shall be served in accordance with this subrule for proceedings under MCR 3.967 and MCR 3.977.
(2) the court shall notify the parent or Indian custodian and the Indian child’s tribe of all hearings other than those specified in subrule (1) as provided in subrule (D). If the identity or location of the parent or Indian custodian or the tribe cannot be determined, notice of the hearings shall be given to the Secretary of the Interior. Such notice may be by first-class mail.
(D) Notice of Hearing.
(1) General. Notice of a hearing must be given in writing or on the record at least 7 days before the hearing except as provided in subrules (D)(2) and (D)(3), or as otherwise provided in the rules.
(2) Preliminary Hearing; Emergency Removal Hearing.
(a) When a juvenile is detained, notice of the preliminary hearing must be given to the juvenile and to the parent of the juvenile as soon as the hearing is scheduled. The notice may be in person, in writing, on the record, or by telephone.
(b) When a child is placed outside the home, notice of the preliminary hearing or an emergency removal hearing under MCR 3.974(C)(3) must be given to the parent of the child as soon as the hearing is scheduled. The notice may be in person, in writing, on the record, or by telephone.
(3) Permanency Planning Hearing; Termination Proceedings.
(a) Notice of a permanency planning hearing must be given in writing at least 14 days before the hearing.
(b) Notice of a hearing on a petition requesting termination of parental rights in a child protective proceeding must be given in writing at least 14 days before the hearing.
(4) Failure to Appear. When a party fails to appear in response to a notice of hearing, the court may order the party's appearance by summons or subpoena.
(1) The attorney for a party or the court on its own motion may cause a subpoena to be served upon a person whose testimony or appearance is desired.
(2) It is not necessary to tender advance fees to the person served a subpoena in order to compel attendance.
(3) Except as otherwise stated in this subrule, service of a subpoena is governed by MCR 2.506.
(F) Waiver of Notice and Service. A person may waive notice of hearing or service of process. The waiver shall be in writing. When a party waives service of a summons required by subrule (B), the party must be provided the advice required by subrule (B)(3).
(G) Subsequent Notices. After a party's first appearance before the court, subsequent notice of proceedings and pleadings shall be served on that party or, if the party has an attorney, on the attorney for the party as provided in subrule (D), except that a summons must be served for trial or termination hearing as provided in subrule (B).
(H) Notice Defects. The appearance and participation of a party at a hearing is a waiver by that party of defects in service with respect to that hearing unless objections regarding the specific defect are placed on the record. If a party appears or participates without an attorney, the court shall advise the party that the appearance and participation waives notice defects and of the party's right to seek an attorney.
(I) Proof of Service.
(1) Summons. Proof of service of a summons must be made in the manner provided in MCR 2.104(A).
(2) Other Papers. Proof of service of other papers permitted or required to be served under these rules must be made in the manner provided in MCR 2.107(D).
(3) Publication. If the manner of service used involves publication, proof of service must be made in the manner provided in MCR 2.106(G)(1), and (G)(3) if the publication is accompanied by a mailing.
(4) Content. The proof of service must identify the papers served. A proof of service for papers served on a foster parent, preadoptive parent, or relative caregiver shall be maintained in the confidential social file as identified in MCR 3.903(A)(3)(b)(vii).
(5) Failure to File. Failure to file proof of service does not affect the validity of the service.