(1) A new trial may be granted to all or some of the parties, on all or some of the issues, whenever their substantial rights are materially affected, for any of the following reasons:
(a) Irregularity in the proceedings of the court, jury, or prevailing party, or an order of the court or abuse of discretion which denied the moving party a fair trial.
(b) Misconduct of the jury or of the prevailing party.
(c) Excessive or inadequate damages appearing to have been influenced by passion or prejudice.
(d) A verdict clearly or grossly inadequate or excessive.
(e) A verdict or decision against the great weight of the evidence or contrary to law.
(f) Material evidence, newly discovered, which could not with reasonable diligence have been discovered and produced at trial.
(g) Error of law occurring in the proceedings, or mistake of fact by the court.
(h) A ground listed in MCR 2.612 warranting a new trial.
(2) On a motion for a new trial in an action tried without a jury, the court may
(a) set aside the judgment if one has been entered,
(b) take additional testimony,
(c) amend findings of fact and conclusions of law, or
(d) make new findings and conclusions and direct the entry of a new judgment.
(B) Time for Motion. A motion for a new trial made under this rule or a motion to alter or amend a judgment must be filed and served within 21 days after entry of the judgment.
(C) On Initiative of Court. Within 21 days after entry of a judgment, the court on its own initiative may order a new trial for a reason for which it might have granted a new trial on motion of a party. The order must specify the grounds on which it is based.
(1) If the facts stated in the motion for a new trial or to amend the judgment do not appear on the record of the action, the motion must be supported by affidavit, which must be filed and served with the motion.
(2) The opposing party has 21 days after service within which to file and serve opposing affidavits. The period may be extended by the parties by written stipulation for 21 additional days, or may be extended or shortened by the court for good cause shown.
(3) The court may permit reply affidavits and may call and examine witnesses.
(E) Remittitur and Additur.
(1) If the court finds that the only error in the trial is the inadequacy or excessiveness of the verdict, it may deny a motion for new trial on condition that within 14 days the nonmoving party consent in writing to the entry of judgment in an amount found by the court to be the lowest (if the verdict was inadequate) or highest (if the verdict was excessive) amount the evidence will support.
(2) If the moving party appeals, the agreement in no way prejudices the nonmoving party's argument on appeal that the original verdict was correct. If the nonmoving party prevails, the original verdict may be reinstated by the appellate court.
(F) Ruling on Motion. In ruling on a motion for a new trial or a motion to amend the judgment, the court shall give a concise statement of the reasons for the ruling, either in an order or opinion filed in the action or on the record.
(G) Notice of Decision. The clerk must notify the parties of the decision on the motion for a new trial, unless the decision is made on the record while the parties are present.