Rule 2.113 Form of Pleadings and Other Papers

(A) Applicability. The rules on the form, captioning, signing, and verifying of pleadings apply to all motions, affidavits, and other papers provided for by these rules. However, an affidavit must be verified by oath or affirmation.

(B) Preparation. Every pleading must be legibly printed in the English language and in compliance with MCR 1.109.

(C) Captions.

(1) The first part of every pleading must contain a caption stating

(a) the name of the court;

(b) the names of the parties or the title of the action, subject to subrule (D);

(c) the case number, including a prefix of the year filed and a two-letter suffix for the case-type code from a list provided by the State Court Administrator pursuant to MCR 8.117 according to the principal subject matter of the proceeding;

(d) the identification of the pleading (see MCR 2.110[A]);

(e) the name, business address, telephone number, and state bar number of the pleading attorney;

(f) the name, address, and telephone number of a pleading party appearing without an attorney; and

(g) the name and state bar number of each other attorney who has appeared in the action.

(2) The caption of a complaint must also contain either (a) or (b) as a statement of the attorney for the plaintiff, or of a plaintiff appearing without an attorney:

(a) There is no other pending or resolved civil action arising out of the transaction or occurrence alleged in the complaint.

(b) A civil action between these parties or other parties arising out of the transaction or occurrence alleged in the complaint has been previously filed in [this court]/[_____ Court], where it was given docket number _____ and was assigned to Judge _____. The action [remains]/[is no longer] pending.

(3) If an action has been assigned to a particular judge in a multi-judge court, the name of that judge must be included in the caption of a pleading later filed with the court.

(D) Names of Parties.

(1) In a complaint, the title of the action must include the names of all the parties, with the plaintiff's name placed first.

(2) In other pleadings, it is sufficient to state the name of the first party on each side with an appropriate indication of other parties, such as “et al.”

(E) Paragraphs; Separate Statements.

(1) All allegations must be made in numbered paragraphs, and the paragraphs of a responsive pleading must be numbered to correspond to the numbers of the paragraphs being answered.

(2) The content of each paragraph must be limited as far as practicable to a single set of circumstances.

(3) Each statement of a claim for relief founded on a single transaction or occurrence or on separate transactions or occurrences, and each defense other than a denial, must be stated in a separately numbered count or defense.

(F) Exhibits; Written Instruments.

(1) If a claim or defense is based on a written instrument, a copy of the instrument or its pertinent parts must be attached to the pleading as an exhibit unless the instrument is

(a) a matter of public record in the county in which the action is commenced and its location in the record is stated in the pleading;

(b) in the possession of the adverse party and the pleading so states;

(c) inaccessible to the pleader and the pleading so states, giving the reason; or

(d) of a nature that attaching the instrument would be unnecessary or impractical and the pleading so states, giving the reason.

(2) An exhibit attached or referred to under subrule (F)(1)(a) or (b) is a part of the pleading for all purposes.

(G) Adoption by Reference. Statements in a pleading may be adopted by reference only in another part of the same pleading.