Rule 2.106 Notice by Posting or Publication

(A) Availability. This rule governs service of process by publication or posting pursuant to an order under MCR 2.105(I).

(B) Procedure. A request for an order permitting service under this rule shall be made by motion in the manner provided in MCR 2.105(I). In ruling on the motion, the court shall determine whether mailing is required under subrules (D)(2) or (E)(2).

(C) Notice of Action; Contents.

(1) The order directing that notice be given to a defendant under this rule must include

(a) the name of the court,

(b) the names of the parties,

(c) a statement describing the nature of the proceedings,

(d) directions as to where and when to answer or take other action permitted by law or court rule, and

(e) a statement as to the effect of failure to answer or take other action.

(2) If the names of some or all defendants are unknown, the order must describe the relationship of the unknown defendants to the matter to be litigated in the best way possible, as, for example, unknown claimants, unknown owners, or unknown heirs, devisees, or assignees of a named person.

(D) Publication of Order; Mailing. If the court orders notice by publication, the defendant shall be notified of the action by

(1) publishing a copy of the order once each week for 3 consecutive weeks, or for such further time as the court may require, in a newspaper in the county where the defendant resides, if known, and if not, in the county where the action is pending; and

(2) sending a copy of the order to the defendant at his or her last known address by registered mail, return receipt requested, before the date of the last publication. If the plaintiff does not know the present or last known address of the defendant, and cannot ascertain it after diligent inquiry, mailing a copy of the order is not required. The moving party is responsible for arranging for the mailing and proof of mailing.

(E) Posting; Mailing. If the court orders notice by posting, the defendant shall be notified of the action by

(1) posting a copy of the order in the courthouse and 2 or more other public places as the court may direct for 3 continuous weeks or for such further time as the court may require; and

(2) sending a copy of the order to the defendant at his or her last known address by registered mail, return receipt requested, before the last week of posting. If the plaintiff does not know the present or last known address of the defendant, and cannot ascertain it after diligent inquiry, mailing a copy of the order is not required. The moving party is responsible for arranging for the mailing and proof of mailing.

The order must designate who is to post the notice and file proof of posting. Only a person listed in MCR 2.103(B)(1), (2), or (3) may be designated.

(F) Newspaper Defined.

(1) The term “newspaper” as used in this rule is limited to a newspaper published in the English language for the dissemination of general news and information or for the dissemination of legal news. The newspaper must have a bona fide list of paying subscribers or have been published at least once a week in the same community without interruption for at least 2 years, and have been established, published, and circulated at least once a week without interruption for at least 1 year in the county where publication is to occur.

(2) If no newspaper qualifies in the county where publication is to be made under subrule (D)(1) the term “newspaper” includes a newspaper that by this rule is qualified to publish notice of actions commenced in an adjoining county.

(G) Proof of Service. Service of process made pursuant to this rule may be proven as follows:

(1) Publication must be proven by an affidavit of the publisher or the publisher's agent

(a) stating facts establishing the qualification of the newspaper in which the order was published,

(b) setting out a copy of the published order, and

(c) stating the dates on which it was published.

(2) Posting must be proven by an affidavit of the person designated in the order under subrule (E) attesting that a copy of the order was posted for the required time in the courthouse in a conspicuous place open to the public and in the other places as ordered by the court.

(3) Mailing must be proven by affidavit. The affiant must attach a copy of the order as mailed, and a return receipt.