Rule 2.105 Process; Manner of Service

(A) Individuals. Process may be served on a resident or nonresident individual by

(1) delivering a summons and a copy of the complaint to the defendant personally; or

(2) sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, and delivery restricted to the addressee. Service is made when the defendant acknowledges receipt of the mail. A copy of the return receipt signed by the defendant must be attached to proof showing service under subrule (A)(2).

(B) Individuals; Substituted Service. Service of process may be made

(1) on a nonresident individual, by

(a) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint in Michigan on an agent, employee, representative, sales representative, or servant of the defendant, and

(b) sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail addressed to the defendant at his or her last known address;

(2) on a minor, by serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on a person having care and control of the minor and with whom he or she resides;

(3) on a defendant for whom a guardian or conservator has been appointed and is acting, by serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on the guardian or conservator;

(4) on an individual doing business under an assumed name, by

(a) serving a summons and copy of the complaint on the person in charge of an office or business establishment of the individual, and

(b) sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail addressed to the individual at his or her usual residence or last known address.

(C) Partnerships; Limited Partnerships. Service of process on a partnership or limited partnership may be made by

(1) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on any general partner; or

(2) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on the person in charge of a partnership office or business establishment and sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, addressed to a general partner at his or her usual residence or last known address.

(D) Private Corporations, Domestic and Foreign. Service of process on a domestic or foreign corporation may be made by

(1) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on an officer or the resident agent;

(2) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on a director, trustee, or person in charge of an office or business establishment of the corporation and sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, addressed to the principal office of the corporation;

(3) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on the last presiding officer, president, cashier, secretary, or treasurer of a corporation that has ceased to do business by failing to keep up its organization by the appointment of officers or otherwise, or whose term of existence has expired;

(4) sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail to the corporation or an appropriate corporation officer and to the Michigan Bureau of Commercial Services, Corporation Division if

(a) the corporation has failed to appoint and maintain a resident agent or to file a certificate of that appointment as required by law;

(b) the corporation has failed to keep up its organization by the appointment of officers or otherwise; or

(c) the corporation's term of existence has expired.

(E) Partnership Associations; Unincorporated Voluntary Associations. Service of process on a partnership association or an unincorporated voluntary association may be made by

(1) serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on an officer, director, trustee, agent, or person in charge of an office or business establishment of the association, and

(2) sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, addressed to an office of the association. If an office cannot be located, a summons and a copy of the complaint may be sent by registered mail to a member of the association other than the person on whom the summons and complaint was served.

(F) Service on Insurer. To the extent that it is permitted by statute, service on an insurer may be satisfied by providing two summonses and a copy of the complaint to the Commissioner of the Office of Financial and Insurance Regulation via delivery or registered mail.

(G) Public Corporations. Service of process on a public, municipal, quasi-municipal, or governmental corporation, unincorporated board, or public body may be made by serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on:

(1) the chairperson of the board of commissioners or the county clerk of a county;

(2) the mayor, the city clerk, or the city attorney of a city;

(3) the president, the clerk, or a trustee of a village;

(4) the supervisor or the township clerk of a township;

(5) the president, the secretary, or the treasurer of a school district;

(6) the president or the secretary of the Michigan State Board of Education;

(7) the president, the secretary, or other member of the governing body of a corporate body or an unincorporated board having control of a state institution;

(8) the president, the chairperson, the secretary, the manager, or the clerk of any other public body organized or existing under the constitution or laws of Michigan, when no other method of service is specially provided by statute.

The service of process may be made on an officer having substantially the same duties as those named or described above, irrespective of title. In any case, service may be made by serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on a person in charge of the office of an officer on whom service may be made and sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail addressed to the officer at his or her office.

(H) Agent Authorized by Appointment or by Law.

(1) Service of process on a defendant may be made by serving a summons and a copy of the complaint on an agent authorized by written appointment or by law to receive service of process.

(2) Whenever, pursuant to statute or court rule, service of process is to be made on a nongovernmental defendant by service on a public officer, service on the public officer may be made by registered mail addressed to his or her office.

(I) Discretion of the Court.

(1) On a showing that service of process cannot reasonably be made as provided by this rule, the court may by order permit service of process to be made in any other manner reasonably calculated to give the defendant actual notice of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard.

(2) A request for an order under the rule must be made in a verified motion dated not more than 14 days before it is filed. The motion must set forth sufficient facts to show that process cannot be served under this rule and must state the defendant's address or last known address, or that no address of the defendant is known. If the name or present address of the defendant is unknown, the moving party must set forth facts showing diligent inquiry to ascertain it. A hearing on the motion is not required unless the court so directs.

(3) Service of process may not be made under this subrule before entry of the court's order permitting it.

(J) Jurisdiction; Range of Service; Effect of Improper Service.

(1) Provisions for service of process contained in these rules are intended to satisfy the due process requirement that a defendant be informed of an action by the best means available under the circumstances. These rules are not intended to limit or expand the jurisdiction given the Michigan courts over a defendant. The jurisdiction of a court over a defendant is governed by the United States Constitution and the constitution and laws of the State of Michigan. See MCL 600.701 et seq. 

(2) There is no territorial limitation on the range of process issued by a Michigan court.

(3) An action shall not be dismissed for improper service of process unless the service failed to inform the defendant of the action within the time provided in these rules for service.

(K) Registered and Certified Mail.

(1) If a rule uses the term “registered mail,” that term includes the term “certified mail,” and the term “registered mail, return receipt requested” includes the term “certified mail, return receipt requested.” However, if certified mail is used, the receipt of mailing must be postmarked by the post office.

(2) If a rule uses the term “certified mail,” a postmarked receipt of mailing is not required. Registered mail may be used when a rule requires certified mail.