Rule 2.102 Summons; Expiration of Summons; Dismissal of Action for Failure to Serve

(A) Issuance. On the filing of a complaint, the court clerk shall issue a summons to be served as provided in MCR 2.103 and 2.105. A separate summons may issue against a particular defendant or group of defendants. A duplicate summons may be issued from time to time and is as valid as the original summons.

(B) Form. A summons must be issued “In the name of the people of the State of Michigan,” under the seal of the court that issued it. It must be directed to the defendant, and include

(1) the name and address of the court,

(2) the names of the parties,

(3) the file number,

(4) the name and address of the plaintiff’s attorney or the address of a plaintiff appearing without an attorney,

(5) the defendant’s address, if known,

(6) the name of the court clerk,

(7) the date on which the summons was issued,

(8) the last date on which the summons is valid,

(9) a statement that the summons is invalid unless served on or before the last date on which it is valid,

(10) the time within which the defendant is required to answer or take other action, and

(11) a notice that if the defendant fails to answer or take other action within the time allowed, judgment may be entered against the defendant for the relief demanded in the complaint.

(C) Amendment. At any time on terms that are just, a court may allow process or proof of service of process to be amended, unless it clearly appears that to do so would materially prejudice the substantive rights of the party against whom the process issued. An amendment relates back to the date of the original issuance or service of process unless the court determines that relation back would unfairly prejudice the party against whom the process issued.

(D) Expiration. A summons expires 91 days after the date the complaint is filed. However, within those 91 days, on a showing of due diligence by the plaintiff in attempting to serve the original summons, the judge to whom the action is assigned may order a second summons to issue for a definite period not exceeding 1 year from the date the complaint is filed. If such an extension is granted, the new summons expires at the end of the extended period. The judge may impose just conditions on the issuance of the second summons. Duplicate summonses issued under subrule (A) do not extend the life of the original summons. The running of the 91-day period is tolled while a motion challenging the sufficiency of the summons or of the service of the summons is pending.

(E) Dismissal as to Defendant Not Served.

(1) On the expiration of the summons as provided in subrule (D), the action is deemed dismissed without prejudice as to a defendant who has not been served with process as provided in these rules, unless the defendant has submitted to the court’s jurisdiction. As to a defendant added as a party after the filing of the first complaint in the action, the time provided in this rule runs from the filing of the first pleading that names that defendant as a party.

(2) After the time stated in subrule (E)(1), the clerk shall examine the court records and enter an order dismissing the action as to a defendant who has not been served with process or submitted to the court’s jurisdiction. The clerk’s failure to enter a dismissal order does not continue an action deemed dismissed.

(3) The clerk shall give notice of the entry of a dismissal order under MCR 2.107 and record the date of the notice in the case file. The failure to give notice does not affect the dismissal.

(F) Setting Aside Dismissal. A court may set aside the dismissal of the action as to a defendant under subrule (E) only on stipulation of the parties or when all of the following conditions are met:

(1) within the time provided in subrule (D), service of process was in fact made on the dismissed defendant, or the defendant submitted to the court's jurisdiction;

(2) proof of service of process was filed or the failure to file is excused for good cause shown;

(3) the motion to set aside the dismissal was filed within 28 days after notice of the order of dismissal was given, or, if notice of dismissal was not given, the motion was promptly filed after the plaintiff learned of the dismissal.

(G) Exception; Summary Proceedings to Recover Possession of Realty. Subrules (D), (E), and (F) do not apply to summary proceedings governed by MCL 600.5701-600.5759 and by subchapter 4.200 of these rules.